Fundamental Forces This book is a first step in understanding how atoms, planets, stars and galaxies were formed from material that emerged from the Big Bang. To even begin to understand the workings of our Universe, we must understand the rules the Universe follows. There are four fundamental interactions between matter and radiation that underlie all processes, at all scales, everywhere in the Universe. Author Dr Andrew Norton, senior lecturer in Astrophysics at The Open University, appears in videos throughout the book, ready to introduce and summarise the concepts you will be covering. In addition, this multitouch book features numerous interactive elements, including quizzes, animated graphics, images, and tables, as well as a comprehensive glossary of terms. This book will help you to grasp the fundamental forces of the Universe, and how these interactions are expressed in terms of quantum theories. This textbook bridges the gap between the top of secondary education and entry level in tertiary education. A student at A-level, International Baccalaureate, or K-12 level will be stretched by this content and teaching. If in doubt, download the free sample.